What We Know About The SolarWinds Network Intrusions – Sunburst

In an effort that has been attributed by many to actors working for or on behalf of a national government (suspected Russian), an adversary compromised the software supply chain of the enterprise IT management firm, SolarWinds, in order to distribute malicious code. This was a supply chain attack – whoever owns the updates owns the network. In this case, the nefarious actors inserted themselves into the updates supply chain of a trusted vendor.

How was it done?
  • Sunburst used a compromised software component to use SolarWinds’ Orion to detect and in some cases attempt to disable defensive software running on targeted systems.  If any of an extensive list of processes was found to be running, the component shut down completely until called again.
  • Sunburst also uses a custom DGA algorithm for its initial command and control (C2). The attackers use the DNS response for the DGA lookup to control backdoor activity, including terminating it (essentially a killswitch). A DGA algorithm is used by malware to periodically generate a large number of domain names that can be used as rendezvous points with their command and control (C2) servers.
  • Coding Obfuscation – This has been documented and is immediately obvious. This is presumably to make it less likely the modified source code would be spotted on visual inspection.
  • Location detection – The UpdateNotification() function also resolves the api.solarwinds.com hostname. If an internal IP address is returned, execution is termination. Care was taken to avoid being detected by the Solarwinds programming team(s).
  • Steps of evasion – The TrackProcesses() function consists of three steps: checking processes (SearchAssemblies()), checking services (SearchServices()), and checking drivers (SearchConfigurations()). These processes include executables tied to security products, as well as packet capture, forensic and malware analysis tools.
  • SearchServices() compares running services against a short list of hardcoded services, again using pre-calcuated hashes. The Sunburst code attempts to disable certain services in the list, modifying the “Start” value in the service Registry configuration. i.e. Defender, Avast, Carbon Strike, Crowdstrike, etc.
Strategic Impacts
  1. Sunburst used multiple vectors to detect and avoid common security services incorporating multiple vendor’s security software.
  2. Forensics will continue but finding all instantiations of the Sunburst Malware is likely to take months, if it can be completed at all.
  3. The op, by Russian or other actors has effectively neutralized “Defend Forward” as a viable cyber strategy in the short and midterm.
5 points Of What’s Known So Far

1.The victims were tough nuts to crack

From top-tier cybersecurity firm FireEye to the US Treasury, Microsoft, Intel and many other organizations, the victims of the attack are for the most part firms with comprehensive cybersecurity practices.

The list of organizations that use the compromised software includes firms like MasterCard, Lockheed Martin and PricewaterhouseCoopers. SolarWinds estimates about 18,000 firms were affected.

2.This was almost certainly the work of a nation – not criminals

Criminal hackers focus on near-term financial gain. They use techniques like ransomware to extort money from their victims, steal financial information, and harvest computing resources for activities like sending spam emails or mining for cryptocurrency. Criminal hackers exploit well-known security vulnerabilities that, had the victims been more thorough in their security, could have been prevented. The hackers typically target organizations with weaker security, like health-care systems, universities and municipal governments.

University networks are notoriously decentralized, difficult to secure, and often underfund cybersecurity. Medical systems tend to use specialty medical devices that run older, vulnerable software that is difficult to upgrade. Hackers associated with national governments, on the other hand, have entirely different motives. They look for long-term access to critical infrastructure, gather intelligence and develop the means to disable certain industries. They also steal intellectual property — especially intellectual property that is expensive to develop in fields like high technology, medicine, defence and agriculture.

3.The attack exploited trusted third-party software

The Sunburst attack relied on a trusted relationship between the targeted organization and SolarWinds. When users of Orion updated their systems in the spring of 2020, they unwittingly invited a Trojan horse into their computer networks.

Image Supplied by Microsoft (Stages of the SolarWinds attack from initial malware infection to ‘hands-on-keyboard’ full access)

The hackers gained access by slipping their malware into software updates of SolarWinds’ Orion software, which is widely used to manage large organizational networks.

4.The extent of the damage is unknown

It will take time to uncover the extent of the damage.  The investigation is complicated because the attackers gained access to most of the victims in the spring of 2020, which gave the hackers time to expand and hide their access and control of the victims’ systems. For example, some experts believe that a vulnerability in VMWare, software that is widely used in corporate networks, was also used to gain access to the victims’ systems, though the company denies it.

Update from FP 12Jan2021 – The company has over 300,000 customers worldwide, according to filings made to the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. Throughout 2020, SolarWinds sent out software updates to roughly 18,000 of them. To date, at least 250 networks have reportedly been affected by the boobytrapped file

5. The fallout could include real-world harm

There is a very thin, often non-existent line between gathering information and causing real-world harm. What may start as spying or espionage can easily escalate into warfare. The presence of malware on a computer system that gives the attacker greater user privileges is dangerous. Hackers can use control of a computer system to destroy computer systems, as was the case in the Iranian cyberattacks against Saudi Aramco in 2012, and harm physical infrastructure, as was the case in the Stuxnet attack against Iranian nuclear facilities in 2010.

Further, real harm can be done to individuals with information alone. For example, the Chinese breach of Equifax in 2017 has put detailed financial and personal information about millions of Americans in the hands of one of the US’s greatest strategic competitors.

No one knows the full extent of the Sunburst attack, but the scope is large and the victims represent important pillars of the US government, economy and critical infrastructure.

Update from Foreign Policy 12Jan2021 – Targeted institutions include the U.S. departments of Defense, Homeland Security, State, Energy, and the Treasury; all five branches of the U.S. military; the National Nuclear Security Administration, and 425 of the Fortune 500 companies, including Cisco, Equifax, MasterCard, and Microsoft.

While the SolarWinds exploit was linked to the SVR in a joint statement by U.S. intelligence agencies, it is by the attack’s very nature impossible to be certain. Complicating matters, another piece of malware that targeted SolarWinds at around the same time—dubbed Supernova by Palo Alto Networks’ Unit 42—appears to have been planted by another actor.

What also makes the SolarWinds breach different from past attacks was how it was delivered (the SolarWinds attack is what’s known in security circles as a “cascading supply chain compromise”) and the way it could serve as a beachhead for future attacks. Unlike in the case of high-profile phishing and hacking exploits against companies such as Equifax and Sony, it is exceedingly difficult to trace how the SolarWinds compromise occurred and determine which data was accessed and pilfered. That’s because the victims of the SolarWinds attack were not confined to a single organization or department, and it is not possible to simply eliminate the malware by wiping the system clean. To the contrary: Hackers ensured that they would have long-term access by adding new credentials and using administrative privileges to grant themselves permissions to access various parts of their victims’ IT infrastructure. What this means is that this hyper-sophisticated campaign—including the theft of information from protected networks—could go on for years.

Update 11Jan2021


1,500 SolarWinds Customers Are Exposing Themselves To Hackers As ‘Russian’ Espionage Continues

Cybersecurity researchers expected to see users of SolarWinds’ Orion tool drop, as customers responded to what was one of the biggest security breaches of recent years, scrambling to protect themselves from snoops like those who penetrated as many as ten government departments and several tech giants, Microsoft, FireEye and Cisco included.

But numbers have, strangely, increased.  Censys data indicates that the number of SolarWinds Orion servers exposed on the web rose from a low of 1,200 on December 28 to 1,550 on January 4, even though the numbers had been dipping after disclosure of the breach.

He believes that in the scramble to update their SolarWinds software, IT teams have misconfigured their servers so they can be identified by anyone with a web connection. “Maybe they had firewall rules that they didn’t anticipate and maybe they changed the port in the process,”


Widely Used Software Company May Be Entry Point for Huge U.S. Hacking

Russian hackers may have piggybacked on a tool developed by JetBrains, which is based in the Czech Republic, to gain access to federal government and private sector systems in the United States. American intelligence agencies and private cybersecurity investigators are examining the role of a widely used software company, JetBrains.

Officials are investigating whether the company, founded by three Russian engineers in the Czech Republic with research labs in Russia, was breached and used as a pathway for hackers to insert back doors into the software of an untold number of technology companies.


Update from Foreign Policy 12Jan2021 – US investigators are exploring the possible involvement of JetBrain, a Czech firm founded in Russia that counts SolarWinds among its clients, in spreading infected code via its TeamCity product.

CISA: SolarWinds hackers also used password guessing to breach targets

CISA says the threat actor behind the SolarWinds hack also used password guessing and password spraying to breach targets, not just trojanized updates.

The US Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) said today that the threat actor behind the SolarWinds hack also used password guessing and password spraying attacks to breach targets as part of its recent hacking campaign and didn’t always rely on trojanized updates as its initial access vector.


1/20/2021 Method of Lateral Movement Identified.


The SolarWinds attack involved the delivery of trojanized updates for Orion, an IT monitoring product, to as many as 18,000 of the company’s customers. These malicious updates delivered a piece of malware named Sunburst, which the attackers inserted into the Orion product using another piece of malware, named Sunspot.

In the case of a few hundred victims that presented an interest to them, including government and high-profile private organizations, the hackers also delivered a piece of malware named by researchers Teardrop, which in turn attempted to deploy a custom version of Cobalt Strike’s Beacon payload.

According to Symantec, the attackers also used another tool — very similar to Teardrop — for lateral movement and to deliver the same Cobalt Strike payload. Raindrop, described by the company as a loader and tracked as Backdoor.Raindrop, was spotted on compromised networks but, unlike Teardrop, it doesn’t appear to have been delivered directly by Sunburst.



Appendix A – Timeline of Events

12/17/20 — Second backdoor discovered in SolarWinds

  • On Dec. 17, Palo Alto Networks published research that identified a second backdoor, dubbed “Supernova,” inside SolarWinds’ Orion platform. During an analysis of Orion artifacts used in the Sunburst attacks, Palo Alto Networks researchers discovered a sophisticated .NET DLL file that allowed threat actors to arbitrarily configure Orion platforms and run malicious code on vulnerable systems. Perhaps more importantly, the researchers believed the Supernova backdoor was implanted by different threat actors than the nation-state adversaries that conducted the initial supply chain attacks, which Palo Alto Networks called “SolarStorm.”
  • “The Supernova webshell’s association with the SolarStorm actors is now questionable due to the aforementioned .DLL not being digitally signed, unlike the Sunburst .DLL,” the researchers wrote. This may indicate that the webshell was not implanted early in SolarWinds’ software development pipeline as was Sunburst, and was instead dropped by a third party.”


  • Microsoft posted similar findings about the second DLL file and backdoor, which “has been determined to be likely unrelated to this compromise and used by a different threat actor.” It’s unclear who that threat actor is and what their goals were.
  • Starting on Dec. 18, several major technologies companies, including Cisco, VMware and Intel, confirm they were infected by the malicious SolarWinds updates. However, the companies say they’ve found no evidence that the Sunburst backdoor was exploited by threat actors.
  • The FBI, CISA and ODNI released a joint statement on Dec. 16 saying the SolarWinds attacks are “ongoing” and confirms that several networks of federal agencies have been breached by threat actors. The agencies also announced the formation of the UCG to address the attacks.
  • Following the disclosure of the SolarWinds supply chain attack, several security researchers discovered the malicious DLL component containing the backdoor used was still present in updates on SolarWinds’ website the day after the supply chain attack was revealed. Other issues with SolarWinds’ response were also discovered.

12/24/20 — SolarWinds addresses ‘Supernova’ backdoor

  • On Dec. 24, SolarWinds released an updated security advisory regarding the second backdoor discovered by Palo Alto Networks researchers, dubbed Supernova. In addition to the .Net webshell, SolarWinds’ investigation found the Supernova malware required the exploitation of a vulnerability in the Orion software platform, which the vendor patched in the most recent updates. In addition, SolarWinds said unlike Sunburst, Supernova was not the result of a supply chain attack.
  • “Supernova is not malicious code embedded within the builds of our Orion Platform as a supply chain attack,” the advisory said. “It is malware that is separately placed on a server that requires unauthorized access to a customer’s network and is designed to appear to be part of a SolarWinds product.”

12/29/20 — SolarWinds statement mentions that there may be other victims

  • In a Dec. 29 statement by SolarWinds, the company discussed its “commitment to cooperation.” Much of the statement broadly discussed the attack and a promise to continue working with enterprises and government authorities in ongoing investigations.
  • “In response to this attack, we are supporting our customers, hardening our products and systems, working with industry-leading third-party cybersecurity experts, and collaborating with our partners, vendors, law enforcement, and intelligence agencies around the world,” the statement reads.
  • In addition, the first paragraph of the statement refers to other potential victims, though it does not suggest any internal knowledge (as of its publishing) that confirms such targets.
  • “SolarWinds customers in both the private and public sectors also were victims of this Sunburst attack, and there have been media reports that other software companies may have been targeted as well. We are currently the most visible victim of this attack, but we are likely not alone,” it reads.

12/30/20 — CISA updates directive for federal agencies

  • CISA added a new supplemental guidance to its SolarWinds hack mitigation directive on Dec. 30.
  • Federal agencies are required to use “at least SolarWinds Orion Platform version 2020.2.1HF2” (the current version of the platform) as “The National Security Agency (NSA) has examined this version and verified that it eliminates the previously identified malicious code.”
  • In addition, it reaffirms that machines using Orion Platform Version 2019.4 HF5, 2020.2 RC1, 2020.2 RC2, 2020.2, 2020.2 HF1 are not currently permitted to be active, and should be shut down or removed from networks.

12/31/20 — Microsoft announces breach

  • The Microsoft Security Response Center released a blog post on Dec. 31 that provided an update on its investigation of Sunburst (referred to by the company as Solorigate) malware, the malware used in the SolarWinds attack that impacted victims including FireEye and the U.S. government. The post reveals that a presumably rogue internal account was used to “view source code in a number of source code repositories.”
  • The post points out in bold text that first and foremost, Microsoft customer data is safe.
  • “Our investigation into our own environment has found no evidence of access to production services or customer data. The investigation, which is ongoing, has also found no indications that our systems were used to attack others,” it read.
  • The blog goes on to say that while malicious SolarWinds applications were detected internally and subsequently removed, Microsoft’s investigation revealed that there was unusual activity detected in a small number of accounts, including the aforementioned source code viewing.
  • “We detected unusual activity with a small number of internal accounts and upon review, we discovered one account had been used to view source code in a number of source code repositories. The account did not have permissions to modify any code or engineering systems and our investigation further confirmed no changes were made. These accounts were investigated and remediated,” the post read.
  • According to Microsoft, there is no increase in risk associated with viewing source code because their threat models “assume that attackers have knowledge of source code.” Moreover, while they don’t generally share source code publicly, their “inner source” culture suggests that the source code isn’t necessarily a massive secret inside of Microsoft.

1/5/21 — U.S. government acknowledges Russia’s likely involvement

  • The FBI, the Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA), the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI) and the NSA released a joint statement on Jan. 5 discussing the President Trump-backed Cyber Unified Coordination Group (UCG), a task force formed in December involving all four organizations and created to investigate and remediate the SolarWinds hack that compromised multiple government networks.
  • For the first time, the government publicly suggested that Russian threat actors were responsible in the statement.
  • “This work indicates that an Advanced Persistent Threat (APT) actor, likely Russian in origin, is responsible for most or all of the recently discovered, ongoing cyber compromises of both government and non-governmental networks. At this time, we believe this was, and continues to be, an intelligence gathering effort. We are taking all necessary steps to understand the full scope of this campaign and respond accordingly,” the statement reads.
  • In addition, the statement says that, regarding those impacted by the attack, they have “so far identified fewer than ten U.S. government agencies that fall into this category.”
  • US Gov’t statement emphasizes that fewer than 10 federal agencies had breaches.





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